The Pan Grave
Contemporary with the C-Group, is the Pan-Grave culture (2000-1600
BC).1 The people of this culture were referred to as
the Medjay.2 Ethnicity, they were identified in close connection with the Kushites. Their native homeland is the eastern deserts
of Sudan and the Red Sea hills. There, they practiced nomadic and semi-nomadic lifestyles.
Archeologically, the culture is labeled Pan-Grave because they buried their deceased in
pits that looked like frying pans.
Vessel, goat horn, and a bowl from Aniba. Courtesy of the Von Bissing
collection and the Staatliche Sammlung Ägyptischer Kunst, Munich.
Source: Wildung, Dietrich. Sudan: Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile.
graves have been located in numerous sites, from Kerma in Sudan to Memphis in the north. Much of the Pan-Grave burials have
not been well excavated especially those in Sudan. However, Pan-Graves excavated in Daraw, Abydos, Aniba, Toshka,
Wadi Halfa, and other regions in Lower Nubia revealed elaborate
information about the culture.3
They buried their deceased in contracted positions,
however; with various body orientations. The bodies there were usually
wrapped in raw leather hides and accompanied with cow skulls that
were often painted with various colors. Among the findings
was a unique type of pottery characterized with plain coloring.
Jewelry was among the common finds, usually made of raw materials
like ostrich-eggshells, faience, and stones. Weaponry was a frequent
type of finding. Daggers, bows and arrows were commonly found.
Edited: Jan. 2009.